Originally Posted by allison
... activating groups are also electron donating groups.
However, activating groups are such as alkyl groups, -OH, -NH2 and -OR groups but electron donating groups are mainly alkyl groups only. -OH and -NH2 groups are electron withdrawing.
In benzene, -OH, -NH2 etc (those with lone pair) are electron donating groups.
Because the lone pair of the O strengthen the C-O bond, and becomes C=O, this is known as resonance effect.
But, in aliphatic case, eg. alkane, aliphatic acid etc, -OH, NH2, etc. are electron withdrawing.
Because O is more electronegative.
(Correct me if I'm wrong...
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